8TH AIR FORCE
The Eighth Bomber Command (re-designated 8th AF in February 1944) was activated as part of the U.S. Army Air Forces on January 28, 1942. Brigadier General Ira C. Eaker relocated the headquarters to England in February 1942 to prepare for its mission of conducting aerial bombardment missions against Nazi-occupied Europe.
During World War II, under the leadership of such Generals as Eaker and Jimmy Doolittle, the 8th AF became the greatest air armada in history. By mid-1944, the 8th AF had reached a total strength of more than 200,000 people. At its peak, the 8th AF had the ability to launch more than 2,000 four-engine bombers and 1,000 fighters on a single mission. For those reasons, the 8th AF became known as the "Mighty Eighth".
The Mighty Eighth compiled an impressive record during the war. This achievement, however, carried a high price. The 8th AF suffered one-half of the U.S. Army Air Forces’ casualties in World War II (47,000-plus casualties with more than 26,000 deaths).
Awards earned by personnel of 8th Air Force:
17 Medals of Honor
220 Distinguished Service Crosses
850 Silver Stars
7,000 Purple Hearts
46,000 Air Medals
Many more uncounted awards were presented to 8th AF veterans after the war. There were 261 fighter aces and 305 gunner aces in the Eighth in World War II; 31 of those fighter aces exceeded 15 or more aircraft kills.
In July 1945, after the war in Europe, 8th AF headquarters moved to Okinawa, where it trained new bomber groups for combat against Japan. The Japanese surrendered before the 8th AF saw action in the Pacific Theater. In June 1946, the headquarters moved to McDill Field, Florida, to become part of the newly established Strategic Air Command. Four years later; November 1950, the 8th AF headquarters transferred to Fort Worth Army Field (later Carswell Air Force Base) in Texas.